The drying crop must be protected from rain: On the other hand, PNG carrageenan is processed by soaking the freshly harvested or dried seaweeds in alkali at a moderate temperature.
The final moisture content of the crop should not be more than be 40 percent. An additional support stake may be placed midway between the original rows of stakes to prevent the lines from sagging. Ongrowing techniques The most important aspect in developing a potentially productive seaweed farm is site selection.
The carrageenan remains intact and protected by the inert cellulose matrix of the cell walls. The site must be assessed to conform to the following criteria: In the single variant, m nylon ropes mm diameter are used Cultivation of red seaweed kappaphycus alvarezii doty main support lines, both ends of which are anchored to the substratum.
All are soluble in hot water, but in cold water, only the lambda form and the sodium salts of the other two are soluble. The plants are regularly turned over to ensure complete sun-drying. The gametophyte and the sporophyte are the large phases in the life cycle of this seaweed.
The original seedstock is washed clean of dirt and other contaminants and transported as quickly as possible to the nursery site in Styrofoam boxes with air holes in the top, without exposing it to sun and wind.
During hot, sunny weather, the harvest may be dried in two or three days. Traditionally the harvested seaweed is cleaned, sorted, and freed from dirt and other seaweeds, before being sun-dried on clean drying platforms usually made of bamboo slats.
Supplies of seedstock are sourced from the wild and multiplied in a nursery plot. Production costs Production costs are dependent on three factors, namely fixed assets, operating expenses and depreciation costs. In earlythese efforts were extended to Sacol Island in the province of Zamboanga and in Tapaan Island lagoon in Siasi province of Sulu.
The monolines are attached to the frame parallel to the length of the frame at cm intervals. The operating cost for a typical 0. Sufficient water depth; in shallow areas the seedstocks must not be exposed during low tides.
Multiple long line units consist of nylon lines mm diametereach of 20 m length or more. Meanwhile, test planting in Danajon Reef was also started resulting to the establishment of commercial farms by the Cebu-based seaweed processing companies in the mid s where the two species were utilized as seedstocks.
A 4 x 5 m raft unit may be planted with cuttings. The dried material is tightly packed in plastic sacks and stored in dry areas before shipment to buying centres. In each case farm maintenance consists primarily of weeding out epiphytes associated with the crop, cleaning the seaweed of silt and dirt, harvesting the poorly growing seedstocks and replacing them with fast growing ones, removing other species of seaweeds that grow in close association with the Eucheuma, replacing lost plants, repairing the farm support system and removing benthic grazers.
The information derived from these studies is important and very relevant to the cropping management in farms where the farmers use several varieties as seedstocks. It is sourced mainly from Kappaphycus alvarezii. Production[ edit ] Eucheuma denticulatum being farmed for iota-carrageenan in an off-bottom cultivation in Tanzania Although carrageenans were introduced on an industrial scale in the s, they were first used in China around B.
After treatment with hot alkali solution e. The nursery-reared cuttings become the seedstock for the first grow-out. If this level of over 2. This gives them the ability to form a variety of different gels at room temperature.
Minimal presence of grazers, microorganisms, silt epiphytes and flotsam. There are three main commercial classes of carrageenan: The short supply of dried seaweeds for processing triggered research and development work on the culture of these species, the survey and assessment of coastal areas with potential for seaweed farming, and an inventory of the local varieties of these species for comparative growth studies and assessment of the quality of their colloidal products.
Profile Historical background In the s an American seaweed processing company transferred its procurement of raw materials for the production of carrageenan from Indonesia to the Philippines. The cooked weed is washed, dried, and milled.
The end-product is a kind of jelly similar to panna cottatapiocaor blancmange. The surveys for potential farming areas centered mainly on Western Mindanao and Central Visayas in the Philippines. The product is called semi-refined carrageenan, Philippines natural grade, or, in the U.
Moderate water current and wave action to maintain high diffusion pressure which enhances the absorption of nutrients by the seaweed.
Floating Methods These methods are used in deeper areas as well as in shallow areas that are characterized by weak water movement or where the bottom topography is irregular.
Kappa forms strong, rigid gels in the presence of potassium ions, and reacts with dairy proteins. Many red algal species produce different types of carrageenans during their developmental history.In the s an American seaweed processing company transferred its procurement of raw materials for the production of carrageenan from Indonesia to the Philippines.
Carrageenans or carrageenins (/ ˌ k ær ə ˈ ɡ iː n ə n z / karr-ə-gee-nənz, from Irish carraigín, "little rock") are a family of linear sulfated polysaccharides that are extracted from red edible billsimas.com are widely used in the food industry, for their gelling, thickening, and stabilizing billsimas.com main application is in dairy and meat .Download