He argued that the frontier had meant that every American generation returned "to primitive conditions on a continually advancing frontier line. They adapted to the new physical, economic and political environment in certain ways—the cumulative effect of these adaptations was Americanization.
But with the approach of the new century, there was a new appreciation of the environment and the scenic values of the West. For many women, Asians, Mexicans who suddenly found themselves residents of the United States, and, of course, Indians, the West was no promised land.
The census had shown that a frontier line, a point beyond which the population density was less than two persons per square mile, no longer existed. They emphasized the values of individualism, empiricism, simplicity, equality, courage, discovery, independence, and naturalism in the service of democratic access, human rights, ecological balance, and the resolution of social, economic, and political issues.
Census Bureau announced that the frontier was closed. In our understanding of what we are as a nation, if on no other level, the Western past continues to define us today. My call is to the young in heart, regardless of age—to the stout in spirit, regardless of party. This is the great, the nation-wide frontier of insecurity, of human want and fear.
InCongress passed the Forest Reserve Act authorizing the president to close timber areas to settlement and create national forests by withdrawing the land from the public domain.
Often the rhetoric reaches an acrimonious crescendo. But in a sense, the very acrimony of these debates takes us full circle back to Turner and his legacy, for debates about the significance of Western history are hardly ever confined to the past.
Some have long disputed the very idea of a frontier of "free land. Cooperation and communities of various sorts, not isolated individuals, made possible the absorption of the West into the United States.
Other historians, who wanted to focus scholarship on minorities, especially Native Americans and Hispanics, started in the s to criticize the frontier thesis because it did not attempt to explain the evolution of those groups. Historians have noted that John F. William Appleman Williams led the "Wisconsin School" of diplomatic historians by arguing that the frontier thesis encouraged American overseas expansion, especially in Asia, during the 20th century.
They also became more violent, more individualistic, more distrustful of authority, less artistic, less scientific, and more dependent on ad-hoc organizations they formed themselves. Individuals, forced to rely on their own wits and strength, he believed, were simply too scornful of rank to be amenable to the exercise of centralized political power.
In broad terms, the further west, the more American the community. Census of had officially stated that the American frontier had broken up. Corporate investors headquartered in New York laid the railroads; government troops defeated Indian nations who refused to get out of the way of manifest destiny; even the cowboys, enshrined in popular mythology as rugged loners, were generally low-level employees of sometimes foreign-owned cattle corporations.
Moreover, as the 19th century wore on, the role of the federal government and large corporations grew increasingly important. Williams viewed the frontier concept as a tool to promote democracy through both world wars, to endorse spending on foreign aid, and motivate action against totalitarianism.
This is the frontier—the America—we have set ourselves to reclaim. Census Bureau had announced the disappearance of a contiguous frontier line. On a more analytic level, an increasing number of Western historians have found the very concept of a frontier dubious, because it applies to too many disparate places and times to be useful.
Limerick points out that Kennedy assumed that "the campaigns of the Old Frontier had been successful, and morally justified. Frederick Jackson Turner "The existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward explain American development. South Africa, Canada, Russia, Brazil, Argentina and Australia—and even ancient Rome—had long frontiers that were also settled by pioneers.The Closing of the Frontier!
Home; Study Guides; U.S. History II; The Closing of the Frontier; All Subjects. Settling the West The Closing of the Frontier Frederick Jackson Turner and the frontier. A year after the Oklahoma Land Rush, the director of the U.S.
Census Bureau announced that the frontier was closed. The census had shown. APUSH the closing of the frontier STUDY.
PLAY. Turner's frontier thesis. the existance of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward explain american development.
Closing of the Frontier Page history last edited by Mr generating a popular sense of American exceptionalism and promoting a highly cultural valuation of the frontier. Although the Turner Thesis has received ongoing criticism over the last fifty years, it remains extremely influential with scholars and popular culture.
Study Flashcards On APUSH chapter 17/ Frontier Thesis at billsimas.com Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. billsimas.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!/5(1).
APUSH Review: The Frontier. Everything You Need To Know About The Frontier To Succeed In APUSH. An Important Thesis. Significance of the Frontier in American History. Written by Frederick Jackson Turner. Many historians argue that the closing of the Frontier helped lead to overseas expansion.
Asia. Caribbean. With the end of the frontier, the romance of the West was over. Critics have pointed out that while Turner’s thesis addressed the psychological state of mainstream, English-speaking America, it did not take into account other people living in the country.
More APUSH Topic Outlines. Discovery and Settlement of the New World; Europe and.Download